Multidrug resistance (MDR) in gram-negative bacteria is genetically very complex. It concerns many different resistance genes and within these genes many different variants exist. Individual resistance genes or variants may be present in a wide range of gram-negative bacteria or may be specific for a single species. Local epidemiology may also differ significantly between various geographical regions.

For clinical diagnostics the following application may be relevant:

  • Screening of individuals suspected of carrying MDR gram-negatives for infection prevention;
  • Testing individuals infected with gram-negative bacteria for increased resistance against β-lactams;
  • Genotypic confirmation of gram-negative bacteria with elevated resistance in culture-based susceptibility testing;
  • Genotypic profiling of single bacteria for epidemiological typing.

Check-Points employs various technology platforms for testing of MDR gram-negative bacteria depending on the clinical application.

Multiplex real-time PCR assays

For active screening and confirmation of carbapenemases and ESBLs in 2 hours

Microarray assays

For comprehensive identification of carbapenemases, ESBLs and AmpCs

Ligation-mediated real-time PCR assays

For confirmation of carbapenemases and ESBLs in clinical isolates